Human Collaboration in Digital Media & Language Translation

duolingo-bannerThe rise of social media has allowed people to remain connected to friends and family across the globe bringing a sense of community into the digital world. Social Networking sites like Facebook are aimed at college student population to make friends and share life updates through while others like LinkedIn are work-oriented. Through these networks of social bubble people are able to work collectively in an environment to add “friends” who can post comments, share photos and message one another. People on Facebook can join groups based on interests, hobbies, interests, musical tastes, and more through a collective environment.

However, social networking sites (SNS) are moving into a new area that allows for human collaborative to aid in the work of translation. In the TED talks, by Luis von Ahn, he talks about the CAPTCHA, which is a device that is used to determine whether a user is a robot and how it can generate words from randomization. From this idea he presents a new social network application known as “Duolingo” to help millions of people learn a new language. It is a site where a person can connect with friends and learn languages. It can be completive with weekly goals and challenges against friends. However, the purpose of the application, “Duolingo” is that while the user is learning a language, they are also translating sentences and words in other languages from the internet library of not translated sources.

The human collaborative aspect of this new form of a social networking site allows for people to educate and remain connected with other translators while helping to close the language gap on the Internet. It is significant in the shift of SNS to simply using them as a way to kill time but for companies and the digital world to benefit from the creativity of the application. Collaboration on the internet leads to more innovative thinking, it allows for SNS to be customizable to taste that brings together a collection of people who can benefit from furthering their intellect. The use of online tools and applications that connect with SNSs can connect the globe allowing people from both digital natives and immigrants feel a part of a larger, innovative learning community.

Work Cited:

Boyd, d. & Ellison, N. (2007). “Social Network Sites: Definition, History, and Scholarship.” Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 13 (1), article 11. Retrieved from http://www.danah.org/papers/JCMCIntro.pdf

Ellison, N., Steinfield, C. & C. Lampe. (2007). “The Benefits of Facebook “Friends”: Social Capital and College Students’ Use of Online Social Network Sites”, Journal of Computer Mediated Communication, Vol 12, No 4, pp. 1143-1168 Retrieved from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1083-6101.2007.00367.x/full

Von Ahn, L. (2011, April) Massive-scale online collaboration (TED Talks) Retrieved from https://www.ted.com/talks/luis_von_ahn_massive_scale_online_collaboration?language=en

Von Ahn, L. (2011, April) Massive-scale online collaboration (TED Talks) Retrieved from https://www.ted.com/talks/luis_von_ahn_massive_scale_online_collaboration?language=en

Interactive Digital Media

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Paperback books and graphic novels have always been stationary, bound by the pages of a book or the panels of a comic book. Graphic novels are a literary medium of their own allowing integration of text in exposition and dialogue with visuals. However, with the turn of the digital age, the medium has found ways to expand through new media technologies such as interactive web design, sound and flash animation. The art of the graphic novel has allowed for artists and writers to be more interactive with their audiences, granting an integrative experience.

The interactive webcomic “The Boat” by Matt Huynh is an award-winning graphic novel that can be found on the Internet rather than on the pages of a book. However, what differs it from an eBook or any other independent web series is that it uses digital media to creative an interactive experience involving the senses, combining motion with still images, sound, animation and electronic text that scrolls through with the click of a mouse. The graphic novel tells the tragic story of Vietnamese refugees who face horrors on their journey across the waters on a boat not built for sea. The interactive website complements the subject matter by allowing the reader go on the journey with the characters to see in their point of view, hear the pounding rain and witness death and tragedy. “The Boat” by Matt Huynh is not bound by written word or panels as other mediums of literature.

Interactive graphic novels are not just inventive in the use of multimedia but in the ways that they can express the narrative. Rather than being linear in storytelling interactive webcomics can experiment in new forms of storytelling by telling the narratives through literal circular or parallel models to show different storylines that exist in novels. A comic book writer, Scott McCloud, states that interactive comics can exist on an infinite blank canvas that is limitless compared to being on a page.

Digital media that have come from the innovation of the digital and information age have allowed for new expressions for graphic novels, expanding the medium into new horizons.

Work Cited:

England, E., & Finney, A. (2011). Interactive Media: What’s that? Who’s Involved?. Interactive Media UK. Retrieved from: http://www.atsf.co.uk/atsf/interactive_media.pdf

Huynh, M. (2015). The Boat. Retrieved from: http://www.sbs.com.au/theboat/

Lingel, J. (2012). “Keeping it Safe”: Information Poverty, Information Norms and Stigma. Journal of the Society for Information Science and Technology 64(5). Retrieved from http://www.danah.org/papers/2012/EBM-InfoPoverty.pdf

McCloud, S. (2005, February). The Visual Magic of Comics (TED Talks). Retrieved from https://www.ted.com/talks/scott_mccloud_on_comics?language=en

Prensky, M. (2001). Do They Really Think Differently?. On the Horizon 9(5). Retrieved from http://www.marcprensky.com/writing/Prensky%20-%20Digital%20Natives,%20Digital%20Immigrants%20-%20Part1.pdf

Prensky, M. (2001). Do They Really Think Differently?. On the Horizon 9(6). Retrieved from http://www.marcprensky.com/writing/Prensky%20-%20Digital%20Natives,%20Digital%20Immigrants%20-%20Part2.pdf

Selwyn, N. (2004). Reconsidering Political and Popular Understanding of the Digital Divide. New Media and Society 6 (3). Retrieved from http://www.hkucourses.com/cybersocieties/wp-content/uploads/2011/01/2004-reconsidering-political-popular-understandings-of-the-digital-divide1.pdf

The Digital Divide & Digital Natives

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The engagement of teenagers in the digital age who have grown up within social media and other technologies as digital natives is important in bridging the gap of the “haves” and “have-nots”. Education is an important method in teaching teenagers and youth the importance of media literacy. Especially when the teaching methods of the digital immigrants are no longer enough for the new generation of students. However, the problem of information poverty extends to youth and digital natives as well as the digital immigrants and those who do not have access to the technologies or skill.

Boyd states that through interviewing youth and teenagers in a town outside of Boston that included both middle-class students seeking an alternative to the public school that had older methods of teaching, and poorer students who were struggling in traditional schools even with some exposure to technology. Teenagers in lower-income families have fewer connections to new technology, making it difficult for them to afford household computers, smart phones or other platforms that connect them. Therefore, when doing homework or assignments that require the access to information of the Internet or programs that allow them to type out homework, their grades take a hit. These disparities of lower-income households hinder youth from reaching full potential to get them out of their economical situation.

In addition, Boyd found the difference between two crowds through the contrast of users on “Facebook” and “MySpace”, those who used the old social media platform could connect to their favourite bands, glorifying urban culture for many users came from poorer urban communities. Facebook as a highbrow social media site as a rite of passage into the social world of the network, therefore many transitioned from older social media into the new. The digital divide of teenagers and youth to do solely extend to poverty and lack of skill, rather there are social structures within teen culture, flock mentality and racial barriers that prevent from equability in teenagers. Therefore for teenagers the Internet is like a mimesis, reflecting the culture of youth society furthering the digital divide and preventing them from reaching their full potential.

Work Cited:

Lingel, J. (2012). “Keeping it Safe”: Information Poverty, Information Norms and Stigma. Journal of the Society for Information Science and Technology 64(5). Retrieved from http://www.danah.org/papers/2012/EBM-InfoPoverty.pdf

Prensky, M. (2001). Do They Really Think Differently?. On the Horizon 9(5). Retrieved from http://www.marcprensky.com/writing/Prensky%20-%20Digital%20Natives,%20Digital%20Immigrants%20-%20Part1.pdf

Prensky, M. (2001). Do They Really Think Differently?. On the Horizon 9(6). Retrieved from http://www.marcprensky.com/writing/Prensky%20-%20Digital%20Natives,%20Digital%20Immigrants%20-%20Part2.pdf

Selwyn, N. (2004). Reconsidering Political and Popular Understanding of the Digital Divide. New Media and Society 6 (3). Retrieved from http://www.hkucourses.com/cybersocieties/wp-content/uploads/2011/01/2004-reconsidering-political-popular-understandings-of-the-digital-divide1.pdf

Singer, N. (2015). The Digital Disparities Facing Lower-Income Teenagers. Retrieved from http://bits.blogs.nytimes.com/2015/11/03/the-digital-disparities-facing-lower-income-teens/?_r=0

 

 

New Media Technology in Schools

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The term “digital native” states that the generation of “new” students are born into the digital world and are naturally innate speakers of the digital language of all mediums within new technology such as video games, computers, media sites and everything that incorporates the internet (Prensky, 2). They learn differently from “digital immigrants” who have not grown up with new media technology and had to adapt to the emerging technologies of the Internet. Digital natives are quicker to adapt and are quicker to learning new technologies such as social media. Therefore, they cannot solely rely on the methods of teaching of the digital immigrant to educate them on technologies that they are familiar with using (Prensky, 2).

New technology is important in the development of the digital natives in their understanding of an evolving digital landscape, to further their minds to utilize tools to enhance creativity through technology of digital software such as Photoshop, social media and other applications. Some examples of integrating technology into the classroom are using computer software to make educational games for children, using tablets to save on paper and cost of textbooks, and a flipped classroom. A flipped classroom is a teaching model where the teacher becomes a guide and students watch lectures from the comfort of their own homes. Khan Academy uses the model of a flipped classroom, Salman Khan posts math tutorials online and students can use his methods to better understand formulas and methods to get a guided view of mathematics. His online tutorials have grown into a digital Academy that has become more than mathematics, such as, science, computer programming, history, art and economics.

LEAP Motion is a hardware device that allows students to write, draw and interact with their computer by using their fingers. This technology develops cognitive skills for children, developing fine motor control while adapting to technology and learning the basics of writing and drawing.

These teaching models are important for the growing digital native in a curriculum that has not changed much since the Victorian age, therefore it is time for an update, to allow children and students to reach their potential in an evolving media landscape.

Work Cited:

Lingel, J. (2012). “Keeping it Safe”: Information Poverty, Information Norms and Stigma. Journal of the Society for Information Science and Technology 64(5). Retrieved from http://www.danah.org/papers/2012/EBM-InfoPoverty.pdf

Our Mission at Khan Academy (2015). Retrieved from https://www.khanacademy.org/about

Prensky, M. (2001). Do They Really Think Differently?. On the Horizon 9(5). Retrieved from http://www.marcprensky.com/writing/Prensky%20-%20Digital%20Natives,%20Digital%20Immigrants%20-%20Part1.pdf

Prensky, M. (2001). Do They Really Think Differently?. On the Horizon 9(6). Retrieved from http://www.marcprensky.com/writing/Prensky%20-%20Digital%20Natives,%20Digital%20Immigrants%20-%20Part2.pdf

Selwyn, N. (2004). Reconsidering Political and Popular Understanding of the Digital Divide. New Media and Society 6 (3). Retrieved from http://www.hkucourses.com/cybersocieties/wp-content/uploads/2011/01/2004-reconsidering-political-popular-understandings-of-the-digital-divide1.pdf

Wakefield, J. (2015). Technology in schools: Future changes in classrooms. Retrieved from http://www.bbc.com/news/technology-30814302

15 Examples of New Technology in Education (2013). Retrieved from http://www.teachthought.com/the-future-of-learning/technology/15-examples-of-new-technology/

Closing the Gap on the Digital Divide

Information poverty and the stigma that surrounds the use of technology is a product of the digital divide. The digital divide expresses the gap between those who not only have Internet and those who do not, but also even extends to the quality of the Internet speed, access to information and the ability to learn or use skills of new media technology. According to Hargittai, “digital inequality better captures inequalities relevant the differences in availability and use of information technologies. Digital inequality has five different dimensions such as, the technology used to access the Internet, location of access, social support networks, the types of uses to which one puts the medium, and media and technology literacy”.

While the gap of the digital divide is studied, the onus and solution is significance to close the gap between “the haves” and the “have-nots” of the digital age.

However, the first question that should be answered in determining a solution is who is to be held responsible in finding a way to mend the divide. A Cornell Survey Research Institute stated that depending on political views the onus varied by conservatives wanting enterprises and businesses to be held responsible, while liberals preferred the government to find a solution. To achieve a solution there must be a combination of both parties working together to increase Internet access and usage to bring the gap to a close. For example, governments could fund schools to buy new computer labs or fund classes that teach important skills.

The second question that should be answered when determining a solution to the digital divide is finding methods that give results to bridge the gap. As stated previously, educational practices and funding through schools can be a way to close the gap for students. However, education should not extend just to the digital native, the old, rich and poor must also be educated. On a global level changing legislation to help others get a better understanding of technology. The solution must come at a global level if society is to solve its far-reaching socio-economical divide, it must be a collective effort that treats media literacy as important as charity.

Work Cited:

Hargittai, E. (2001). Second-Level Digital Divide: Mapping Differences in People’s Online Skills. Retrieved from http://arxiv.org/pdf/cs/0109068.pdf

Hulegaard, D. (2015). The Digital Divide: What Works and What Doesn’t. The Digital Divide, Causes and Solutions. Retrieved from: http://www.academia.edu/6642754/The_Digital_Divide_Causes_and_Solutions

Lingel, J. (2012). “Keeping it Safe”: Information Poverty, Information Norms and Stigma. Journal of the Society for Information Science and Technology 64(5).Retrieved from http://www.danah.org/papers/2012/EBM-InfoPoverty.pdf

Prensky, M. (2001). Do They Really Think Differently?. On the Horizon 9(5). Retrieved from http://www.marcprensky.com/writing/Prensky%20-%20Digital%20Natives,%20Digital%20Immigrants%20-%20Part1.pdf

Prensky, M. (2001). Do They Really Think Differently?. On the Horizon 9(6). Retrieved from http://www.marcprensky.com/writing/Prensky%20-%20Digital%20Natives,%20Digital%20Immigrants%20-%20Part2.pdf

Selwyn, N. (2004). Reconsidering Political and Popular Understanding of the Digital Divide. New Media and Society 6 (3). Retrieved from http://www.hkucourses.com/cybersocieties/wp-content/uploads/2011/01/2004-reconsidering-political-popular-understandings-of-the-digital-divide1.pdf

The Use of Beta Readers

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As the Internet has connected communities and nations across the globe, the relationship of writers with their readers has been enhanced through creating networks of writers and their audiences through the development of new media technology.The use of beta readers allows for authors (published traditionally and through self-publishing) allows for authors to gain a better understanding of what works in their text and what needs to be revised, improved or rewritten before submitting to a literary agent or editor.

Beta readers have evolved through the Internet as a new tool for emerging writers connected to the digital world. Beta readers help build a better book, who are often readers of the genre within the market of what the writer wants to publish in the literary market. They are chosen by the author and rather than relying solely on the opinion of family and friends who can be biased towards the author and their work, they can submit to an impartial audience. Beta readers can be found on online communities such as “Good Reads”, “World Lit Café” and in writing events such as “NaNoWriMo” (National Novel Writing Month). In NaNoWriMo the concept of the beta reader is translated into an online community of other writers who workshop, edit and critique each other’s work while using that knowledge to work on their own. As resources develop prospecting authors to authors are connected along with their audiences to develop their skills. For each reader is different and will present the author with a fresh opinion on their work. The ability to connect

Specific communities and technologies are important in developing sound stories and enhance creativity. On a small scale for authors technology has become a new medium for authors to expand on their creative skill and allow for limitless imagination that integrates media and connect them with other authors and beta readers to uncover more about their own work. Further on a board scale the development of the beta reader, these affinity spaces allow for people to actively learn in their craft in peer to peer teaching, to participate in their interests and celebrate a world of self-express in a world that hinders creativity.

Work Cited:

Douglas, C. & Macleod, C. (2014, March 19). 5 Things You Should Know about Working with Beta Readers. Retrieved from http://www.thebookdesigner.com/2014/03/5-things-you-should-know-about-working-with-beta-readers

Jenkins, H. (et. al). Confronting the Challenges of Participatory Culture: Media Education for the 21st Century. The John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation Reports on Digital Media and Learning. Retrieved from https://mitpress.mit.edu/sites/default/files/titles/free_download/9780262513623_Confronting_the_Challenges.pdf

Jenkins, H. (2006). Eight Traits of the New Media Landscape. Retrieved from http://henryjenkins.org/2006/11/eight_traits_of_the_new_media.html

Tornero, J.M.P. & Varis, T. (2010). New Media Literacy & New Humanism. UNESCO Institute for Information Technologies in Education. Retrieved from http://iite.unesco.org/pics/publications/en/files/3214678.pdf

The Art of Media

As our media landscapes grow with the evolution of technology, art has grown and changed to match the development of media and the limitless creativity that interactive installation, video games and film have to offer the artist.

The piece in the photograph is a work by a Japanese media artist named, Ryoichi Kurokawa and his piece is known as “Five Horizon” on display at the Japan Media Arts Festival (JMAF). It is an audiovisual installation art that expresses that creativity and imagination is not limited to what can be drawn or painted on paper.

The technological advances awakens new forms of artistry such as digital art, media art, audiovisual and video expression, therefore technology has the traditional and contemporary views and mediums that surround art. However, unlike expensive paintings and drawings of the fine and modern ages of art, people do not have to go to galleries to view them. The expression of media arts can be viewed on many platforms because people are exposed to some form of it each day. Graphic design of websites, digital printing and advertising is something that bombards the online user each time they log online, CGI and game design are exposed to children and lovers of movies and video games, and interactive art allows for not only the artist to express their message but for the viewer to be creative as well.

Media as an art form has allowed for creativity to be accessible to people of all skill settings. From the phenomenon of the “selfie” (a new-found self-expression of photography that captures a self-taken portrait of oneself), art applications for cell phones, to Adobe Program Collections being available for consumers to try their hand at different programs. Furthermore, there are classes in high school that teach the basics of film and television production inspiring youth to peruse art as a career. Art has become much more than what is found within a gallery because now anyone can produce media art that can be displayed across the globe through the media.

Although technology has advanced dramatically and continues to change with time, art has not fallen behind. Media Art has become a prominent method for expression allowing for artists to challenge the borders of comptempary and traditional art, innovating new ways to utilize technology and imagination to broaden the definition of what art can be.

Work Cited

Dortmund U. (2011, September 10). The Japan Media Arts Festival. Retrieved from http://www.dortmunder-u.de/en/news/preview-japan-media-arts-festival-hmkv

Jenkins, H. (et. al). Confronting the Challenges of Participatory Culture: Media Education for the 21st Century. The John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation Reports on Digital Media and Learning. Retrieved from https://mitpress.mit.edu/sites/default/files/titles/free_download/9780262513623_Confronting_the_Challenges.pdf

Jenkins, H. (2006). Eight Traits of the New Media Landscape. Retrieved from http://henryjenkins.org/2006/11/eight_traits_of_the_new_media.html

Tornero, J.M.P. & Varis, T. (2010). New Media Literacy & New Humanism. UNESCO Institute for Information Technologies in Education. Retrieved from http://iite.unesco.org/pics/publications/en/files/3214678.pdf

Fine Tuning Media Literacy

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While fashion can be used as an outward display of personality and character, allowing one to customize themselves to match their inner aspects, the digital world offers many ways one can tailor what they see within the media landscape. People can craft their own websites through different blogging sites, personalize through both premade layouts or custom-made on programs such as Adobe Dreamweaver, Photoshop, and other platforms and use social media as means to express themselves through status updates, pictures, video, vlogs and more.

However, while the digital world allows the online user to use the Internet as an outward expression, they can also customize their participation in our current media landscape.

On a large-scale people can choose to sign up for some social media networks and refuse to join others because of lack of skills needed to join. This can narrow mind the full potential of the online user within the culture of media, for those who do not have the same skill setting as others can be left behind and unable to network in the expanding cyberspace of the Internet. Henry Jenkins calls this the “elective”, meaning that, “people can opt in and out of different levels of participation. “ This can be empowering to those with the knowledge of new media technics and freighting for those without the means to be active in the digital world.

Furthermore, customizable social media can make it difficult to stay tuned into all that connects people to society. Participation in new media culture also stems to what we are tuned into on the Internet. On different social media communities, the user can choose to follow, friend, subscribe or watch whomever they wish blocking them out to the endless possibilities that come from seeing all sides of the media. For example, one might “like” only one of the Canadian political parties, which alienates the person from the opinion of the other parties, keeping them in a narrow mind.

The contributing factor to this issue is education, never before has it been more important for people to understand the possibilities of cyberspace to share information, thought and communicate to audiences. Not only should education seek for people to be media literate but also understand the importance of using as a tool to broaden one’s knowledge, not narrow it.

Work Cited

Jenkins, H. (et. al). Confronting the Challenges of Participatory Culture: Media Education for the 21st Century. The John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation Reports on Digital Media and Learning. Retrieved from https://mitpress.mit.edu/sites/default/files/titles/free_download/9780262513623_Confronting_the_Challenges.pdf

Jenkins, H. (2006). Eight Traits of the New Media Landscape. Retrieved from http://henryjenkins.org/2006/11/eight_traits_of_the_new_media.html

Tornero, J.M.P. & Varis, T. (2010). New Media Literacy & New Humanism. UNESCO Institute for Information Technologies in Education. Retrieved from http://iite.unesco.org/pics/publications/en/files/3214678.pdf

The New Media Landscape: A Method to Divide Society or Bring Humanity Closer Together?

The evolving media landscape and emerging technologies offers a flowing community of networking elevating society’s connection to a global scale. Never before has information traveled so quickly across many different mediums on an international level. Additionally, how we connect to others can be divided through many scales, from the personal to the vast communities available through different social media platforms.

However, while our Internet connection has strengthened to bring people together under the medium of the media landscape, has it also put our ability to interact and communicate with others? Has the current media landscape alienated humanity in a bubble known as the digital world birthing a newfound divide? Is this necessarily a bad change for society?

The growing technological gap is significant in understanding how the new media landscape can divide and alienate society. It is evident to see that people born fifty years ago grew up in a very different media environment, even those within the nineties were brought up in a contrasting digital world, therefore the participation of different generations can display the furthering divide. As stated by Jenkins (2006), Adults know less than they think about what young people are doing online and young people know less than they think about the values and assumptions that shape adult’s relationship to media.” Therefore, this segregates generations in the participation of people within the fast-paced digital world.

While this is true that the evolving new media landscape is changing how we as society communicates and interacts it does not undermine the importance of media literacy. The digital world that some can argue inhibits their quality of life within reality, has transformed how we communicate. The program “Skype” allows families and friends from different countries to stay connected and has replaced the snail mail letter system of the past. Furthermore, on a smaller level, the application known as “Snap Chat” allows friends to send simple pictures or ten-second videos to one another.

Media literacy has changed society’s methods of communication, it has both expanded our connection to others on the global and interpersonal scale, allowed for vast amounts of information to be available and allowed for participation throughout generations (as in any form of communication, there needs to be a sense of collaboration between people), all one needs to do is sign on.

Work Cited

Jenkins, H. (et. al). Confronting the Challenges of Participatory Culture: Media Education for the 21st Century. The John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation Reports on Digital Media and Learning. Retrieved from https://mitpress.mit.edu/sites/default/files/titles/free_download/9780262513623_Confronting_the_Challenges.pdf

Jenkins, H. (2006). Eight Traits of the New Media Landscape. Retrieved from http://henryjenkins.org/2006/11/eight_traits_of_the_new_media.html

Tornero, J.M.P. & Varis, T. (2010). New Media Literacy & New Humanism. UNESCO Institute for Information Technologies in Education. Retrieved from http://iite.unesco.org/pics/publications/en/files/3214678.pdf

Should Media Literacy be Taught in Schools?

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The operating system, Windows 98 hit retail on June 25 1998, yet well used into the 2000’s long after better systems came on the market therefore a lot of children and teachers had to suffer through using a dated dinosaur computers, that they feared would explode.

The current media landscape has evolved drastically in the past few years, creating new ways for people to connect to vast networks of people, express themselves creatively and gain knowledge.

However, there is one aspect that hinders people from reaching their full potential on the online world. Most children and young adults learn about the limitless possibilities of cyberspace through their own interactions on their own time. This is provided that they have the means to access the Internet or an up to date computer. Not all youth are able to reach their full potential on the Internet or have the change to understand both the pros and cons of the media landscape.

The one aspect that many lack is a basic education in media literacy provided by schools and academic institutions. However, the education systems have not adapted to the changing media culture that has become a significant part of our society.

Media literacy is important because it can be a tool that inspires creativity through self-expression of blogs, video channels and even art. It provides them with access to knowledge and continued learning through developing new ways of learning.

Education must also focus on the dangers of cyberspace from the issues important of media consumption and critical understanding of messages that they are shown through advertisement, how to avoid Internet addiction and understanding that while there is a lot of knowledge, there is even more misinformation presented on the Internet. Filtering information is a basic tool that children and young adults need to comprehend to survive the bombardment of information being shown to them. Therefore, both the pros and the cons need to be taught to the minds of youth.

In conclusion, media literacy should be taught to children and young adults in schools and those loud, dinosaur computers should be tossed out to make way for a new generation of the literate.

Work Cited

Jenkins, H. (et. al). Confronting the Challenges of Participatory Culture: Media Education for the 21st Century. The John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation Reports on Digital Media and Learning. Retrieved from https://mitpress.mit.edu/sites/default/files/titles/free_download/9780262513623_Confronting_the_Challenges.pdf

Jenkins, H. (2006). Eight Traits of the New Media Landscape. Retrieved from http://henryjenkins.org/2006/11/eight_traits_of_the_new_media.html

Tornero, J.M.P. & Varis, T. (2010). New Media Literacy & New Humanism. UNESCO Institute for Information Technologies in Education. Retrieved from http://iite.unesco.org/pics/publications/en/files/3214678.pdf